This web page will focus on conducting a review of the literature including the current pertinent documentation for the California Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CA CCSSM). The state of California adopted the common core state standards in 2010 and approved the California Mathematics Framework in draft form in November 2013. The mathematics framework is currently being edited for final publication. Dr. Smith is a teacher of mathematics in California at an alternative high school. He is working on the implementation of curriculum, instruction, and assessment using the Mathematics Vision Project (MVP) integrated pathway curriculum.
Common Core Mathematics Implementation
Each school district in California had the flexibility of deciding which pathway. Our school district chooses the integrated pathway after receiving input from every teacher at the secondary level during a professional development workshop in the spring of 2013. The integrated pathway was named Common Core High School Mathematics I, II, and III. Teachers made a decision to phase in the new courses over a three-year period. CCHS Math I was implemented in 2014-2015 school year. CCHS Math II is being implemented in 2015-2016. CCHS Math III will begin in 2016-2017.
The National Council of Teachers for Mathematics published three germinal publications concerning mathematics education between 1989 and 1995. These germinal publications include Curriculum and Evaluation Standards for School Mathematics (1989), Professional Standards for Teaching Mathematics (1991), and Assessment Standards for School Mathematics (1995).
Principles and Standards for School Mathematics (NCTN, 2000) was published as a guide for educational leadership to help make decisions affecting mathematics education for grades kindergarten through grade 12. The information has made it successfully to the authors of state frameworks for mathematics but has not been successful in migrating down to the teachers in the classrooms.
Introduction to Higher Mathematic Courses
“The standards for higher mathematics are organized in two ways—as model courses and in conceptual categories. “The model courses consist of three courses with different pathways. The Traditional Pathway includes Algebra I, Geometry, and Algebra II. The Integrated Pathway includes Mathematics I, II, and III. There are also four advanced courses for high school. The advanced courses are Pre-Calculus, Statistics and Probability, Calculus, and Advanced Placement Probability and Statistics)”(CDE, 2013, Corestandards.org, 2013). The model courses guide developing curriculum and instruction in the traditional high classrooms” (CDE, 2013).
The initial professional development workshops for secondary teachers required a dramatic shift in instructional methodology for teaching Mathematics to meet the common core state standards. It became clear after attending the first two professional developments that additional research was necessary to understand how to implement the curriculum and modify the design of instruction for an alternative environment. Students at the alternative high schools require fewer credits for graduation. These students are still required to take state accountability assessments and meet other graduation requirements. The California High School Exit Examination (CAHSEE) is no longer a requirement for the next three years as a high school diploma requirement (Hwang, 2015). The CAHSEE used secondary mathematics standards that have now been replaced by common core state standards based on the previous 1997 mathematics framework.
The traditional and integrated pathways are two sequences of courses of higher mathematics standards of the CA CCSSM. The higher mathematics standards specify the mathematics that all students should study to be ready for college and careers. Additional mathematics that students should learn to take advanced courses such as calculus, advanced statistics, or discrete mathematics are indicated by a “(+)” symbol in the mathematics framework. All standards without a (+) symbol should are part of the mathematics curriculum (+) symbol may also appear in courses for all students to increase coherence. The standards listed with a (+) symbol are for students who wish to pursue higher-level mathematics courses or college majors in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) field. Precalculus course mainly consists of the (+) standards. Precalculus is designed to be an appropriate preparation course for Calculus. Local educational agencies may offer additional higher mathematics courses not described in this framework. The higher mathematics standards included in the CA CCSSM are designed, in part, as a menu of standards from which educators can create customized courses. Districts must offer the mathematics courses that all students need to complete to fulfill state high school graduation requirements; see California Education Code sections 51224.5 and 51225.3. Beyond requirements outlined in state law, local districts determine which course offerings and sequences best meet the needs of students. Our independent home studies opt to create a mathematics course based on certain CA CCSSM and the California Career Technical Education Model Curriculum Standards supporting the Aquaponics. (See http://www.cde.ca.gov/ci/ct/sf/ctemcstandards.asp [accessed June 2, 2014]). Schools may also create a Mathematical Modeling course using starred standards in Appendix B of the mathematics framework and the Overview of the Standards Chapters for more information. Schools and districts may want to review the Statement on Competencies in Mathematics Expected of Entering College Students (ICAS 2013) to help determine which courses to offer to students.
California Department of Education (CDE) (2015). Mathematics Framework Chapters. Retrieved from http://www.cde.ca.gov/ci/ma/cf/documents/mathfwhighermath.pdf
Hwang, K. (Aug 2015). Gov. Brown signs bill abolishing the CAHSEE. The Desert Sun. Retrieved from http://www.desertsun.com/story/news/education/2015/08/28/gov-brown-signs-bill-abolishing-cahsee/71284526/